Abiotic Production of Oxygen/Ozone

Planets with carbon dioxide rich atmospheres won’t produce oxygen or ozone is amounts large enough to look misleadingly like an Earth-like planet…

Abiotic formation of O2 and O3 in high-CO2 terrestrial atmospheres

…but only if they have oceans. If the planet is frozen or a desert then the geochemical sinks for O2/3 produced by photolysis of CO2 won’t be working and they can build up. Thus signs of water, mild temperatures and oxygen means an oxygenic biosphere, not funny chemistry.

Except… Venus during its runaway greenhouse phase probably lost an ocean of water and had a very thick oxygen atmosphere as a result – but did that show? Scalding oceans covered in cloud, to an astronomer looking at its very cold cloud-tops (250 K) it probably looked like an “icehouse” and not a nice “Pale Blue Dot”.

Jesus is Lord!

Not a sign of a sudden conversion, but more of a gentle steering back into faith. For the last 8 years I have been an avowed agnostic – with occasional lapses. But recently I have had to admit to myself that I believe more than I doubt, so agnosticism is untenable. But just what do I believe now? I have always had problems with the view that the Bible was inerrant (“100% without error” as one Church web-site claims), but I have also had problems with calling it all irrelevant to faith whether the Bible stories are historically true and accurate.

If the Bible has to be “demythologised” then what remains distinctively Christian? What remains the “message” (kergma in Greek) of the Gospel?

Rudolf Bultmann gave a name to the demythologisation craze of the 20th Century, but really people had been rationalising over the Bible stories way back to Isaac Newton and Baruch Spinoza in the 17th Century. Unlike Newton or Spinoza I personally want to remain Orthodox in my doctrines, but even then that is a pretty broad target.

The first step, I think, is deciding what to make of the Bible. Nowhere within the text itself does it claim the books we call “The Holy Bible” is totally without error. Instead it is said to be “God-breathed” – i.e. the Spirit moved prophets and preachers to write the books that make it up. But all of them came to the task within a particular historical context – the Bible is not just history, but has a history. And that history has to be understood.

Also if the Bible is inspired – as Orthodoxy preaches – then reading it and gaining an understanding relies on the Spirit’s action as well. In fact I would make the claim that all error – heresies and so on – stems from exalting human understanding over the meaning the Spirit wishes to convey to us. That doesn’t mean Dogmatic Theology – writing bulging books of “god-talk” – can’t be done systematically or without use of scholarly techniques, but it should always remain open the moves of the Spirit.

More importantly the Bible isn’t the living Word of God without the Spirit. You can’t read it as God’s Word without listening to the Spirit’s voice. Else it’s just “The Bible” – a fallible product of fallible humans. And, unlike Jesus, the Bible didn’t have a Virgin Birth.

As the Book says “Why do you say I am Good? Only One is Good.”

The New Omega Point Theory II

At the Friendly Atheist blog I made this comment as a summary of Frank Tipler’s new Christian Omega Point Theory…

The “Theory of Everything” he promotes is nothing new – just the Minimally Extended Standard Model, plus a quantum gravity equation developed years ago. And Tipler’s use of the Many Worlds approach to Quantum Mechanics is nothing new either.

Somewhat batty is his ideas about Jesus using macroscopic sphaleron fields to cause super-rapid proton-decay, turning a tiny bit of mass into a neutrino beam to carry him across water, or turning neutrinos into “loaves and fishes” to feed the 4000. Basically he’s saying “miracles” are really “God-tech”, literally, and so only use physical law, rather than violating it. If you believe that God is the Omega Point then I guess those sort of miracles might work.

Most of his claims have pretty solid physics behind them BUT he’s saying his take on the physics is the ONLY valid approach. That’s where his claim to some kind of divine truth really has problems. His strident advocacy of the Many Worlds version of QM, for example, might have problems because of recent experiments that potentially falsify it.

Tipler also thinks the quantum gravity equation of Richard Feynman and Steve Weinberg is correct – but it has been rejected by most physicists working on quantum gravity because it has an infinite number of terms when expanded and can’t be renormalised. Tipler argues, perhaps validly, that many proofs in mathematics potentially involve an infinite number of statements, but I think most physicists working on quantum gravity are hoping for a set of equations their finite minds can handle. Tipler might be right but his case is a LONG way from proven.

As for his Apocalyptic hyperbole… well I’d blame it on his faith tradition’s penchant for “Left Behind” style dramas in human history. Except more than a few Futurists expect radical changes as Super-Intelligence is developed. He’s certainly not a lone lunatic voice on this one – for example Vernor Vinge thinks the Singularity is only 50 years away.

…and I feel I need to expand. My promised critique is waiting on getting a hold of his book, “The Physics of Christianity”, which isn’t looking good – maybe not until August (i.e. overseas order for my Birthday.) Even “Borders” doesn’t have it here in BrisVegas, which is annoying. But I’ve read a lot of his online material and so I think I have some idea of what he’s saying.

“Somewhat batty” isn’t an intentional insult BTW. Atheists tend to see all claims of miracles as absurd, and claiming that Jesus’s miracles are thanks to Omega Point technology (macroscopic sphalerons) is only a bit less weird. As a rule theists haven’t claimed to know the mechanism of God’s interactions with the world in any detail – Tipler is a pioneer, and a brave one in that regard.

Do I believe him?

Firstly, I am unsure if the specific miracles Tipler focuses on need to be explained as real events. Biblical scholarship has cast serious doubt on the nature miracles as anything other than parabolic fictionalising of prophecies about Jesus-as-Messiah. But the problem with that approach is that Jesus, as a real person, fades out of view if we start hacking away at the Gospels in an over-zealous attempt to demythologise. We have to use “discernment” to disentangle history and historicised prophecy in the New Testament, and that’s pretty subjective. In epistemological terms (“how do we know”) Tipler has used as much imagination as the demythologisers who decide what’s history and what’s not.

So if we accept them as events to be explained, then what? Tipler’s ideas become one possibility amongst many – and that’s my main issue with the Whole of his thesis: that physics has already uncovered The Truth. Which physics?

AIAA News on Woodward drive

The AIAA publishes a free newsletter and the January 2007 Issue contains a fascinating article on the implications of a working Mach-Lorentz Thruster, a concept based on Prof. James Woodward’s work on the cause of inertia. Ernst Mach, over a century ago, proposed that inertia is caused by the influence of the rest of the Universe on an accelerating mass. Woodward managed to put this concept into equations consistent with General Relativity – basically inertia is the gravitational analogue of electromagnetic back-reaction, which is quite well known and related to John Cramer’s Transactional Interpretation of Quantum mechanics.

By cleverly exploiting the finite time of back-reaction a propellantless thruster effect can be generated – which Woodward has claimed to have observed experimentally. The article’s author, Paul March, describes a 25 ton MLT propelled vehicle powered by fuel cells able to fly to the Moon in just 2.5 hours at 2 gee. Without the need for aerobraking such a shuttle could have a turn-around as little as an hour. Four trips to the Moon a day, two tons of cargo each time, could deliver 2,920 tons a year – and that’s just one shuttle. Coupled to a more enduring power-source a vehicle could accelerate to near-lightspeed in less than a year at 1 gee… but there’s more than a few places to go in the Solar System before we brave that voyage.

More on the Rainbow Body

An article which seems to be the basis for the Discover piece’s discussion of the Rainbow Body…

The Rainbow Body

…with some extra anecdotes. Father Tiso mentions his own vision of Christ, which is fascinating, plus some bilocation stories of Christian Saints. Post-mortem visions of Saints is pretty big in Catholic and Orthodox Christianity. Both believe that Saints share in the Beatific Vision – basically God’s eye-view of Creation – thus they can hear our prayers and know what’s happening here on Earth.

Crass Physicist Question: Just how do they do so much in a timely way?

Answer: There’s another dimension of Time.

Seriously, there’s a very notable Physicist who has been in the news about his “Two Time” theory, which seeks to complete various physical symmetries by adding another time dimension – call it “Orthogonal Time”. To hear all our prayer requests at once – and how many are asking a Saint to talk to God at the same time? – all a Saint needs to do is “move” a bit into Orthogonal Time.

If you have Eternity to play with, what’s a bit more Time?

A lot of Christians, especially Sectarians, think all deceased persons are really dead until they’re physically Resurrected by JC – but what did JC say about Abraham, Isaac and Jacob? That to God they were Alive! There’s a lot of sophistry brought to bare on this verse by Sectarians, but really they’re twisting JC’s words to deny the “literal meaning”. Other Protestants aren’t too sure what the post-life is really like – usually vague descriptions of Heaven or the New Jerusalem fill the void.

And me? More later…

Discover Magazine articles

A quick posting, plus some commentary later (I promise)…

Mirror World …Titan – a frozen Earth?

Soul Search …DIY uploading into your Rainbow Body.

Science and Islam in Conflict …when everything is Allah’s Will how can science claim consistency?

Circles of Life …how eccentric can an Earth get?

Hot Times on Titan …come 6 billion AD Titan will defrost to a toasty -73 C.

A link from the Soul Search piece is just an archive card at Australia’s ABC radio…

Father Francis Tiso …reconciling Christ and Buddha.

…which really interests me. I read about the Rainbow Body in John Robinson’s 1970 book on Christology (The Human Face of God) as a possible example of how Christ’s body was transformed. I’m sure fundamentalists might not like the idea of Buddhists resurrecting, but as Robinson (and many others) have pointed out Jesus was too big an event to be limited to just Christians. He made it possible for all people to resurrect into the New Life by defeating Death for all of us.

Early Buddhism agreed with Christianity that we’re all in thrall to the Power of Death – what Christians call ‘Satan’ and Buddha called ‘Mara’ – and outlined the way of approaching a true understanding of the escape route. I think the ‘Clear Light’ that Tibetan Buddhism aims for, and looks to for answers, is the same Light that the Gospel of John talks about which shines on all of us – and we reject it because of the consciousness of our sin that it causes. As The Epistle of James tells us, God shines his light on all with no partiality, but we’re led astray by our own desires. In the Tibetan Bardo Thodol the Light can only be entered by those prepared for it, freed from earthbound desires.

But what is freedom from desire all about? The Greeks called it Apatheia – freedom from passions – and it was considered it an attribute of the gods. I think it’s kind of hard to put into words, but it doesn’t mean we “feel nothing”. Instead we rule our feelings and aren’t ruled by them – and we rule them by recognising their causes, their progression and their dissipation. Mindfulness. In Christian terms, the Fruit of the Spirit – Love. More on that later.

Affordable SPS… Paul Roseman

The International Space Development Conference 2007 was held over the weekend of May 25-28 and was chock-full of ideas. One especially caught my attention because its developer, Paul Roseman, is a Sci-Fi fan like me who dreamt of working in space, and actually has a plan to bring that future about. Paul has graciously allowed me to reproduce his paper here on Crowlspace, and I would like to discuss it in some detail.

Here’s the abstract, to tease you into reading the whole speech,…

It may be possible, now, to build a 5 gigawatt space solar power system for about 10 years revenues at $0.10 per kilowatt hour. This can be done by utilizing an as yet unused materials stream available in low earth orbit (LEO). This method is required to lower the costs of this project due to the massive amount of material to be launched into orbit. The materials stream is used to create both the structure/frame of the solar collecting and microwave transmitter beaming satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO), and the shell of the habit/remanufacturing facility in LEO.

That materials stream is spent boosters. For many launches with strap on boosters, like the Space Shuttle or the Ariane V, these main boosters can be launched into LEO at some or little payload weight penalty. For the Shuttle, next to none; for the Ariane V, about half of the payload. In LEO, these boosters can be melted down and remanufactured into structural parts for the solar cells and microwave transmitter elements, manufactured on earth.

These boosters can also be captured and used to create the shell of the variable gravity, closed ecology, remanufacturing facility in LEO. Earth standard manufacturing hardware will be launched to space in containers which will be stuffed inside the booster shells. These booster shells will be connected and rotated with ion engines to induce an artificial martian gravity at the ends, with variable gravity down the spine. The solar power panels will be manufactured inside the structure and assembled on its frame, then connected to unmanned transport and taken to GEO, where they will be joined with the satellite to increase the power sent to earth. The closed ecology of the remanufacturing facility will save significant money by lessening resupply at $5,000 per pound.

The revenues of the project are $40 billion, determined by 10 years of 5 gigawatts of power delivered at $0.10 per kilowatt hour for 8000 hours per year. The costs are primarily determined by the standard launch costs of $5,000 per pound to LEO. They are estimated at $35 billion. Of that, current solar cell costs for 5 gigawatts are $5 billion for the cells and $22.5 billion to launch them to LEO. Ion engines and fuel are used to get the finished modular pieces of the solar power satellite to GEO, so that the costs are also quite reduced.

Optimistic? Of course, but nothing is ever done without taking a risk.

First point of my discussion is the question: How much can launch costs be improved in the short term?

Paul cuts costs by haulling the finished components of the SPS to GEO with solar-powered ion-drives – plus he uses the upper stages of the boosters for structural materials. He bases his cost estimates on the current rates of placing payloads to LEO – between $10,000-$5,000/lb ($22,000-$11,000/kg) – but there is a cheaper option that may be available soon. Elon Musk’s SpaceX is offering haulage to LEO via its Falcon 9 Heavy for a $90 million launch fee. Maximum payload is estimated to be ~ 27,500 kg, thus the per kg cost is $3,300/kg. Musk promises a “modest” discount for long term contracts, so let’s call it $3,000/kg.

Roseman cuts mass-to-orbit cost by using the lower stages of the launchers. On the SpaceX site there’s a technical description of the launcher available and I’m working on just how much a Falcon 9 could push into orbit. So watch this space…

Habitable planet around Proxima

No this is not a discovery announcement, so don’t stress. Instead Greg Laughlin has posted over on Systemic a discussion of what a positive detection of a habitable planet around a red dwarf star would require of current telescopic facilities. Proxima Centauri would be a surprisingly easy target and a logical one, since it is so close to our Sun allowing first class data to be gathered. Best of all it’s only 4.22 ly away – just 267,000 AU. Depressingly our fastest probes currently only do about 3 – 4 AU a year, so Proxima is still a long, long way off. Happily it’s also gradually getting closer, so by the year 27,000 it will be about 3.2 ly away. A few millennia shaved off the trip time.

In reality no one advocates a mere ~ 5 AU a year. The fastest seriously proposed vehicle is the Thousand AU (TAU) probe which can do a cracking 20 AU/yr. That’s a 10,000 year trip to Proxima at its closest. Of course there have been less serious designs for probes, the most detailed being the British Interplanetary Society’s “Daedalus”, which can do a mind boggling 0.122 lightspeed – almost 37,000 km/s – which puts Proxima a mere 35 years away, neglecting braking at the other end. With a magnetic-sail as a propellant-less brake a “Daedalus” probe could slow-down into orbit around Proxima, adding maybe 10 years to the trip time. A magnetic-sail would also allow the probe to visit all the planets in the system (Laughlin estimates anywhere between 2 and 5 terrestrial planets, as Jovian planets have already been ruled out.) Thus results from an orbital survey of a habitable planet could be beamed back to Earth some 50 years after launch.

Phil Dick would’ve smiled

Fomalhaut (Whale Mouth, in Arabic) was a favourite location for many of Philip K. Dick’s stories – either as a place for aliens to have come from, or for people to eke out a lonesome existence. Now it probably has a planet, as well as a ring of dust…

Planet Warps a Ring

…though whether it’s home to aliens is another question. Perhaps it is just a relay point, as the star and its system seem to be very young.

Dante’s Inferno…

This is cool… in a kind of grim way. Dante’s “Inferno” is a journey through the Circles of Hell – well worth a read for anyone wanting to know how people thought in the 14 th Century. Dante puts more than a few Popes in Hell for abuse of their office, which was a pretty gutsy thing to do especially when one of them was still alive.

Dante’s Inferno

The entry way into Hell has a chilling “Sign”:

Abandon All Hope Ye Who Enter Here